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Routine pavement management, the most cost effective, occurs regularly over time so as to maintain road safety and traveling conditions. Infrared and cold patch are routinely performed to compensate for ordinary wear and tear.
Preventive pavement management, aims to reduce, postpone or eliminate more costly repairs in the future. The fog seal and crack sealing techniques are often applied over larger areas to extend the road's life expectancy and reduce frequency of routine maintenance.
Rehabilitation is necessary when severe conditions or circumstances have made roads impassable. Installation of water lines, gas lines or drainage systems necessarily disrupt transportation, making road rehabilitation necessary. The degree of rehabilitation is determined by road conditions prior to the disruption, and the extent to which the road must be improved to sustain future traffic requirements. These methods, from lowest to highest costs per linear foot, are
- Microsurfacing (M),
- Leveling & Microsurfacing (LM I, LM II),
- Mill & Overlay (MO), and
- Full-Depth Reclamation (FDR).